Programming languages, compilers, interpeters and environments for development

A programming language is an artificial language (syntax for expressing), meant for giving commands which we want the computer to read, process and execute.Through programming languages we write sequences of commands (programs), which define what the computer should do. The execution of computer programs can be done with acompiler or with an interpreter.

The compiler translates the code from programming lagnuage to machine code, as for each of the constructions (commands) in the code, it chooses a proper, preveiously prepared fragment of machine code and in the meantime it checks the text of the program for errors. Together, the compiled fragments comprise the program into a machine code, as the microprocessor of the computer expects it. After the program has been compiled, it can be executed directly from the microprocessor in cooperation with the operating system. With compiled programming languages the compilation of the program is done mandatorily before its execution and during compile time can be found syntax errors (wrong commands). Languages like C++, C#, Java, Swift and Go work with a compiler.

Some programming languages do not use a compiler and are being interpreted directly form a specialized software, called an "interpreter". The interpreter is "a program for executing programs", written in some programming language. It executes the commands in the program one after another, as it understands not only a single command and sequences of commands, but also other language constructions (evaluations, iterations, functions, etc.). Languages like PHP, Python and JavaScript work with an interpreter and are being executed whithout being compiled. Due to the absence of previous compilation, with inerpreted languages the errors are being found during runtime, after the program starts running, not previously.

An environment for development (Integrated Development Environment - IDE) is an union of taditional tools for development of software applications. In the environment for development we write code, compile and execute the programs. Environments for development integrate in them a text editor for writing code, a programming language, a complier or an interpreter and a runtime environment for executing programs, a debugger for tracking the program and seeking out errors, tools for user interface design and other tools and add-ons.

Environments for development are convinient, because they integrate everything necessary for the development of the program, whithout the need to exit the environment. If we don't use an environment for development, we will have write the code in a text editor, to compile it with a command in the console, to run it with another command in the console and to write more additional commands when we need to and that would waste us time. That is why most of the programmers use an IDE in their everyday work.

For programming with the language C# it is mostly used Visual Studio IDE, which is developed and spread freely by Microsoft and can be downloaded from: https://www.visualstudio.com/downloads/. Alternatives of Visual Studio are Rider (https://www.jetbrains.com/rider/) и MonoDevelop / Xamarin Studio (http://www.monodevelop.com) and SharpDevelop (http://www.icsharpcode.net/OpenSource/SD/). In the current book, we are going to use the development enivironment Visual Studio.

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